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تحقیقات آموزشی EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
Educational Research تحقیقات آموزشی سنجش و اندازه گیری آموزش تدریس روش تحقیق 
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Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to natural phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships.

Quantitative research is widely used in both the natural sciences and social sciences, from physics and biology to sociology and journalism. It is also used as a way to research different aspects of education. The term quantitative research is most often used in the social sciences in contrast to qualitative research.

 

[Overview

Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include:

  • The generation of models, theories and hypotheses
  • The development of instruments and methods for measurement
  • Experimental control and manipulation of variables
  • Collection of empirical data
  • Modeling and analysis of data
  • Evaluation of results

Quantitative research is often an iterative process whereby evidence is evaluated, theories and hypotheses are refined, technical advances are made, and so on. Virtually all research in physics is quantitative whereas research in other scientific disciplines, such as taxonomy and anatomy, may involve a combination of quantitative and other analytic approaches and methods. D Pattni describes quantitative research as a very powerful tool for organisations.

In the social sciences particularly, quantitative research is often contrasted with qualitative research which is the examination, analysis and interpretation of observations for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships, including classifications of types of phenomena and entities, in a manner that does not involve mathematical models. Approaches to quantitative psychology were first modelled on quantitative approaches in the physical sciences by Gustav Fechner in his work on psychophysics, which built on the work of Ernst Heinrich Weber. Although a distinction is commonly drawn between qualitative and quantitative aspects of scientific investigation, it has been argued that the two go hand in hand. For example, based on analysis of the history of science, Kuhn (1961, p. 162) concludes that “large amounts of qualitative work have usually been prerequisite to fruitful quantification in the physical sciences”[1]. Qualitative research is often used to gain a general sense of phenomena and to form theories that can be tested using further quantitative research. For instance, in the social sciences qualitative research methods are often used to gain better understanding of such things as intentionality (from the speech response of the researchee) and meaning (why did this person/group say something and what did it mean to them?).

Although quantitative investigation of the world has existed since people first began to record events or objects that had been counted, the modern idea of quantitative processes have their roots in Auguste Comte's positivist framework..

[ Statistics in quantitative research

Statistics is the most widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research outside of the physical sciences, and also finds applications within the physical sciences, such as in statistical mechanics. Statistical methods are used extensively within fields such as economics, social sciences and biology. Quantitative research using statistical methods starts with the collection of data, based on the hypothesis or theory. Usually a big sample of data is collected - this would require varification, validation and recording before the analysis can take place. Software packages such as PSPP and R are typically used for this purpose. Causal relationships are studied by manipulating factors thought to influence the phenomena of interest while controlling other variables relevant to the experimental outcomes. In the field of health, for example, researchers might measure and study the relationship between dietary intake and measurable physiological effects such as weight loss, controlling for other key variables such as exercise. Quantitatively based opinion surveys are widely used in the media, with statistics such as the proportion of respondents in favor of a position commonly reported. In opinion surveys, respondents are asked a set of structured questions and their responses are tabulated. In the field of climate science, researchers compile and compare statistics such as temperature or atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

Empirical relationships and associations are also frequently studied by using some form of General linear model, non-linear model, or by using factor analysis. A fundamental principle in quantitative research is that correlation does not imply causation. This principle follows from the fact that it is always possible a spurious relationship exists for variables between which covariance is found in some degree. Associations may be examined between any combination of continuous and categorical variables using methods of statistics.

[ Measurement in quantitative research

Views regarding the role of measurement in quantitative research are somewhat divergent. Measurement is often regarded as being only a means by which observations are expressed numerically in order to investigate causal relations or associations. However, it has been argued that measurement often plays a more important role in quantitative research. For example, Kuhn argued that within quantitative research, the results that are shown can prove to be strange. This is because accepting a theory based on results of quantitative data could prove to be a natural phenomenon. He argued that such abnormalities are interesting when done during the process of obtaining data, as seen below:

When measurement departs from theory, it is likely to yield mere numbers, and their very neutrality makes them particularly sterile as a source of remedial suggestions. But numbers register the departure from theory with an authority and finesse that no qualitative technique can duplicate, and that departure is often enough to start a search (Kuhn, 1961, p. 180).

In classical physics, the theory and definitions which underpin measurement are generally deterministic in nature. In contrast, probabilistic measurement models known as the Rasch model and Item response theory models are generally employed in the social sciences. Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique for measuring social and psychological attributes and phenomena. This field is central to much quantitative research that is undertaken within the social sciences.

Quantitative research may involve the use of proxies as stand-ins for other quantities that cannot be directly measured. Tree-ring width, for example, is considered a reliable proxy of ambient environmental conditions such as the warmth of growing seasons or amount of rainfall. Although scientists cannot directly measure the temperature of past years, tree-ring width and other climate proxies have been used to provide a semi-quantitative record of average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere back to 1000 A.D. When used in this way, the proxy record (tree ring width, say) only reconstructs a certain amount of the variance of the original record. The proxy may be calibrated (for example, during the period of the instrumental record) to determine how much variation is captured, including whether both short and long term variation is revealed. In the case of tree-ring width, different species in different places may show more or less sensitivity to, say, rainfall or temperature: when reconstructing a temperature record there is considerable skill in selecting proxies that are well correlated with the desired variable.

[ Quantitative methods

Quantitative methods are research techniques that are used to gather quantitative data - information dealing with numbers and anything that is measurable. Statistics, tables and graphs, are often used to present the results of these methods. They are therefore to be distinguished from qualitative methods.

In most physical and biological sciences, the use of either quantitative or qualitative methods is uncontroversial, and each is used when appropriate. In the social sciences, particularly in sociology, social anthropology and psychology, the use of one or other type of method has become a matter of controversy and even ideology, with particular schools of thought within each discipline favouring one type of method and pouring scorn on to the other. Advocates of quantitative methods argue that only by using such methods can the social sciences become truly scientific; advocates of qualitative methods argue that quantitative methods tend to obscure the reality of the social phenomena under study because they underestimate or neglect the non-measurable factors, which may be the most important. The modern tendency (and in reality the majority tendency throughout the history of social science) is to use eclectic approaches. Quantitative methods might be used with a global qualitative frame. Qualitative methods might be used to understand the meaning of the numbers produced by quantitative methods. Using quantitative methods, it is possible to give precise and testable expression to qualitative ideas. This combination of quantitative and qualitative data gathering is often referred to as mixed-methods research.

[ Examples of quantitative research

  • Research that consists of the percentage amounts of all the elements that make up Earth's atmosphere.
  • Survey that concludes that the average patient has to wait two hours in the waiting room of a certain doctor before being selected.
  • An experiment in which group x was given two tablets of Aspirin a day and Group y was given two tablets of a placebo a day where each participant is randomly assigned to one or other of the groups.

The numerical factors such as two tablets, percent of elements and the time of waiting make the situations and results quantitative.

[ See also

[References

  1. ^ Thomas S. Kuhn, The Function of Measurement in Modern Physical Science

موضوعات مرتبط: تحقیقات آموزشی Educational Research
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Research from the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) [27] indicates that inquiry and project-based approaches, combined with a focus on curriculum, effectively supports the infusion of educational technologies into the learning and teaching process.


[] Technology in the Classroom

  • Computer in the Classroom: Having a computer in the classroom is an asset to any teacher. With a computer in the classroom, teachers are able to demonstrate a new lesson, present new material, illustrate how to use new programs, and show new websites. [28]
  • Class Website: What better way to display your student's work, than to create a web page designed just for your class. Once a web page is designed, teachers can post homework assignments, student work, famous quotes, trivia games, and so much more. In current day society, children know how to use the computer and navigate their way through a website, so why not give them one where they can be a published author.
  • Wireless Classroom Microphones: Noisy classrooms are a daily occurrence, and with the help of microphones, students are able to hear their teachers clearer. Children learn better when they hear the teacher clearly. The benefit for teachers is that they no longer lose their voices at the end of the day

موضوعات مرتبط: تکنولوژی آموزشی Educational Technology
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Three main theoretical schools or philosophical frameworks have been present in the educational technology literature. These are Behaviorism, Cognitivism and Constructivism. Each of these schools of thought are still present in today's literature but have evolved as the Psychology literature has evolved.

[ Behaviorism

This theoretical framework was developed in the early 20th century with the animal learning experiments of Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Edward C. Tolman, Clark L. Hull, B.F. Skinner and many others. Many psychologists used these theories to describe and experiment with human learning. While still very useful this philosophy of learning has lost favor with many educators.

[Skinner's Contributions

B.F. Skinner wrote extensively on improvements of teaching based on his functional analysis of Verbal Behavior,[7] and wrote "The Technology of Teaching",[8] an attempt to dispel the myths underlying contemporary education, as well as promote his system he called programmed instruction. Ogden Lindsley also developed the Celeration learning system similarly based on behavior analysis but quite different from Keller's and Skinner's models.

[ Cognitivism

Cognitive science has changed how educators view learning. Since the very early beginning of the Cognitive Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, learning theory has undergone a great deal of change. Much of the empirical framework of Behaviorism was retained even though a new paradigm had begun. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning. Cognitivists consider how human memory works to promote learning.

After memory theories like the Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model and Baddeley's Working memory model were established as a theoretical framework in Cognitive Psychology, new cognitive frameworks of learning began to emerge during the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. It is important to note that Computer Science and Information Technology have had a major influence on Cognitive Science theory. The Cognitive concepts of working memory (formerly known as short term memory) and long term memory have been facilitated by research and technology from the field of Computer Science. Another major influence on the field of Cognitive Science is Noam Chomsky. Today researchers are concentrating on topics like Cognitive load and Information Processing Theory.

[Constructivism

Constructivism is a learning theory or educational philosophy that many educators began to consider in the 1990s. One of the primary tenets of this philosophy is that learners construct their own meaning from new information, as they interact with reality or others with different perspectives.

Constructivist learning environments require students to utilize their prior knowledge and experiences to formulate new, related, and/or adaptive concepts in learning. Under this framework the role of the teacher becomes that of a facilitator, providing guidance so that learners can construct their own knowledge. Constructivist educators must make sure that the prior learning experiences are appropriate and related to the concepts being taught. Jonassen (1997) suggests "well-structured" learning environments are useful for novice learners and that "ill-structured" environments are only useful for more advanced learners. Educators utilizing technology when teaching with a constructivist perspective should choose technologies that reinforce prior learning perhaps in a problem-solving environment.

[ Connectivism

Connectivism is "a learning theory for the digital age," and has been developed by George Siemens and Stephen Downes based on their analysis of the limitations of behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism to explain the effect technology has had on how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn. Donald G. Perrin, Executive Editor of the International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning says the theory "combines relevant elements of many learning theories, social structures, and technology to create a powerful theoretical construct for learning in the digital age."


موضوعات مرتبط: تکنولوژی آموزشی Educational Technology
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Educational technology is most simply and comfortably defined as an array of tools that might prove helpful in advancing student learning. Educational Technology relies on a broad definition of the word "technology". Technology can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines or hardware, but it can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and techniques. Some modern tools include but are not limited to overhead projectors, laptop computers, and calculators. Newer tools such as "smartphones" and games (both online and offline) are beginning to draw serious attention for their learning potential.

Those who employ educational technologies to explore ideas and communicate meaning are learners or teachers.

Consider the Handbook of Human Performance Technology.[2] The word technology for the sister fields of Educational and Human Performance Technology means "applied science." In other words, any valid and reliable process or procedure that is derived from basic research using the "scientific method" is considered a "technology." Educational or Human Performance Technology may be based purely on algorithmic or heuristic processes, but neither necessarily implies physical technology. The word technology, comes from the Greek "Techne" which means craft or art. Another word "technique", with the same origin, also may be used when considering the field Educational technology. So Educational technology may be extended to include the techniques of the educator.[citation needed]

A classic example of an Educational Psychology text is Bloom's 1956 book, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.[3] Bloom's taxonomy is helpful when designing learning activities to keep in mind what is expected of--and what are the learning goals for-- learners. However, Bloom's work does not explicitly deal with educational technology per se and is more concerned with pedagogical strategies.

According to some, an Educational Technologist is someone who transforms basic educational and psychological research into an evidence-based applied science (or a technology) of learning or instruction. Educational Technologists typically have a graduate degree (Master's, Doctorate, Ph.D., or D.Phil.) in a field related to educational psychology, educational media, experimental psychology, cognitive psychology or, more purely, in the fields of Educational, Instructional or Human Performance Technology or Instructional (Systems) Design. But few of those listed below as theorists would ever use the term "educational technologist" as a term to describe themselves, preferring terms like "educator".[citation needed] The transformation of educational technology from a cottage industry to a profession is discussed by Shurville, Browne, and Whitaker.[4]

[edit] History

One comprehensive history of the field is Saettler's The evolution of American educational technology.[5] Another worthy title is Larry Cuban'sOversold and Underused - Computers in the Classroom.[6]

For several decades, vendors of equipment such as laptop computers and interactive white boards have been claiming that their technologies would transform classrooms and learning in many positive ways, but there has been little evidence provided to substantiate these claims.[citation needed]

To some extent, the history of educational technology has been marked by a succession of innovations that arrive with much fanfare but often fade into the background once fully tested, as Cuban argues in the above title.[citation needed]


موضوعات مرتبط: تکنولوژی آموزشی Educational Technology
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Educational technology (also called learning technology) is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[1] The term educational technology is often associated with, and encompasses, instructional theory and learning theory. While instructional technology covers the processes and systems of learning and instruction, educational technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human capability. Educational Technology includes, but is not limited to, software, hardware, as well as Internet applications and activities
موضوعات مرتبط: تکنولوژی آموزشی Educational Technology
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It is my pleasure to welcome you to the home page for California State University, Bakersfield. When you think of Bakersfield, you might ask, "Why Bakersfield"? Our answer is simple: excellence. We have charted a course toward our vision of excellence:
"By 2014-15, CSU Bakersfield will be the leading campus in the CSU system in terms of faculty and academic excellence and diversity, quality of the student experience, and community engagement. Realization of our vision will be advanced by the recruitment, development, and promotion of excellent and diverse staff within an organizational culture committed to excellence in all areas."
Welcome to CSUB
Admissions - Apply Now It is my pleasure to welcome you to the home page for California State University, Bakersfield. When you think of Bakersfield, you might ask, "Why Bakersfield"? Our answer is simple: excellence. We have charted a course toward our vision of excellence:
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موضوعات مرتبط: تحقیقات آموزشی Educational Research، تصویر image / pictures، معرفی کتاب Book Introduction، مجله ها Journals، معرفی سایت Site Introduction
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Statistics and Methodology

NORC statisticians and methodologists have pioneered innovations in all aspects of survey research, from understanding cognitive processes underlying respondents' reactions to surveys, to rigorous, efficient methods for conducting surveys, to advanced techniques for analyzing and interpreting survey data. Capabilities include:

 

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موضوعات مرتبط: معرفی سایت Site Introduction
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محقق می خواهد علاوه بر گزارش نتایج تحقیق  بین دو موقعیت مقایسه انجام دهد. و ۰
Free Resources for Program Evaluation and Social Research Methods

This page lists FREE resources for program evaluation and social research methods.  The focus is on "how-to" do evaluation research and the methods used: surveys, focus groups, sampling, interviews, and other methods.  Most of these links are to resources that can be read over the web.  A few, like the GAO books, are for books that can be sent away for, for free (if you live in the US), as well as read over the web.

Protecting the public   Visit here first!  This page has links to information about human research protection practices, research codes and guidelines, rights of the public, professional standards and ethics and others related to protection.  I hope the links listed here are very helpful, because this is stuff to which all researchers should pay serious attention.
Resources

Basic guides   These have very plain and clear descriptions of what evaluation is. Useful to introduce people to evaluation.


Organizations

Methods - books, manuals, guides to research methods and evaluation

Approaches to evaluation  , politics of evaluation and logic models.

Survey methods

Sites specifically about sampling

Methods - Qualitative

Policy Analysis

Research about research methods   Journals, individual papers, conferences, etc.

General methods, and links that don't fit elsewhere

Links to links   Sites like this one, that link to resources for evaluation and research methods.

Gao books  on survey design, statistics, content analysis, other methods topics.

Statistics, design

Data Issues. Quality, usability, etc... I'm working on this one.

Free software for statistics, and a few office suite packages

Presenting statistical data and preparing research reports

subject areas you need to know social psychology, organizations, other

Free Statistical Tools on the Web   brief review of free statistical resources. 

Insights   insights about evaluation from various people. only a few so far.

Training  on line training courses.
Featured sites

What is program evaluation: A set of beginners guides   http://gsociology.icaap.org/methods/BasicguidesHandouts.html

MandE NEWS mailing list
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/MandENEWS/
talk to other evaluators about evaluating international aid.

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Country Led Evaluation mailing list
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MicroSiris http://www.microsiris.com/
Free statistical software

Got something you'd like me to feature? Let me know.

Other sites of interest

Feed the hungry at  http://www.thehungersite.com

Pictures, movies, virtual postcards, midi music,  for kids to look at or listen to. http://earth.prohosting.com/elecon/kidpage/

Not mine, but consumer info. http://fire.prohosting.com/pubinfo/


Find many resources about evaluation at any of these links portals

 

Resources for Methods in Evaluation and Social Research,
 Evaluation Portal: Link Collection,
 WWW Virtual Library: Evaluation,
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American Evaluation Association: Online resources list,
 Le site Portal de L'evaluation dans l'espace francophone,
CDC Evaluation Working Group resources,


About this site



This site is listed as a link from the American Evaluation Association, the Canadian Evaluation Society, the International Association of Survey Statisticians, OECD and Unicef.  Click here for a complete list of sites that list this site.

The evaluation site is an ICAAP  supported site
ICAAP is: The International Consortium for the Advancement of Academic Publication

Many of the sites listed on the evaluation site were found by looking at other sites related to evaluation, for example, the Free Management Library, CDC's site, and through others.  Some were also found by looking at general sociology sites.  We are thankful to all of them.

Send feedback or comment to us at   gsociology at yahoo (dot) com
This site was created by Gene Shackman, Applied Sociologist.

Click here for information about me.  Also, if you link this site to yours, could you please let me know?  I would also be very interested to find out if you find this site useful.

This site had been prepared using Netscape Composer and Mozilla and now seamonkey.

Disclaimer:  All of the work on this site was done at home, using our home computers and home time.  This site does not represent the position of any organization, and in our work on this site, we do not represent any organization. We are not affiliated with or supported by any organization, except that the site is hosted by ICAAP, and we are grateful for their hosting.

The information made available through links at this web site are provided as a public service.  Information and links at this site are for educational purposes only, and are not intended to be advice or suggestions for any action or inaction.  Any actions taken by visitors to this site are totally the responsibility of the visitors.  Material on linked sites does not necessarily reflect our opinions, nor do we assume any responsibility for the content provided at these linked sites.

Privacy policy:  ICAAP, the host, keeps count of who visits this site.  The info they collect includes what web sites refer people to this one, and the type of browser.  They and we (gene and ya-lin) don't make any of their information public, and so far as we can tell, ICAAP does NOT collect any info that can personally identify any visitors.  The counter we use also does not collect any personally identifying information. If there are any problems, let me know.

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موضوعات مرتبط: جامعه شناسی آموزش و پرورش Educational sociology، تحقیقات آموزشی Educational Research، معرفی سایت Site Introduction
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"تحقیقات آموزشی""آموزش و پرورش" kharazmi"یادگیری ""دانش آموز" معلم "روش تدریس"مدیریت آموزشی "نظارت و راهنمایی"مدیریت درس برنامه ریزی ارزشیابی تحقیق پژوهش "یاددهی و یادگیری""گروههای آموزشی" "تکنولوژی آموزشی" معلمان دین مدیریت "برنامه ریزی" اختلالات یادگیری."Education" learning "student" teacher "teaching methods" "Supervision" course management planning exercise research study evaluating "teaching and learning" "educational research" "departments" "educational technology" teachers,learning disabilities.learning disorders
management "planning "Instructor Training
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